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什么是斗拱?有何作用?

来源:http://www.luchuangjiancai.com/ 时间:2021-09-27 浏览量:

斗拱,又称枓栱、斗科、欂栌、铺作等,是中国建筑特有的一种结构。在立柱顶、额枋和檐檩间或构架间,从枋上加的一层层探出成弓形的承重结构叫拱,拱与拱之间垫的方形木块叫斗,合称斗拱。
Dougong, also known as Dougong, douke, Tuo, Pu Zuo, etc., is a unique structure of Chinese architecture. In the top of the column, between the architrave and the eaves purlin or between the frames, the arched load-bearing structure protruding from the layers added on the architrave is called the arch, and the square wood block padded between the arch and the arch is called the bucket, which is collectively called the bucket arch.
斗拱的产生和发展有着非常悠久的历史。斗拱的实例.早见于战国时期中山国出土的四龙四凤铜方案。
The emergence and development of bucket arch has a very long history. The example of Dougong. The copper scheme of four dragons and four phoenixes unearthed in Zhongshan state as early as the Warring States period.
斗拱的作用:

Function of bucket arch:

1、荷载作用
1. Load action
它位于柱与梁之间,由屋面和上层构架传下来的荷载,要通过斗拱传给柱子,再由柱传到基础,因此,它起着承上启下,传递荷载的作用。
It is located between the column and the beam. The load transmitted from the roof and the upper frame should be transmitted to the column through the bucket arch, and then transmitted to the foundation by the column. Therefore, it plays the role of connecting the preceding and the following and transmitting the load.
2、增大距离
2. Increase distance
它向外出挑,可把.外层的桁檀挑出一定距离,使建筑物出檐更加深远,造形更加优美、壮观。在它成型之后很长一段时间内,被作为构件大小的基本尺度。
When it is lifted outward, it can lift the outer truss sandalwood out of a certain distance, so that the eaves of the building are more far-reaching, and the shape is more beautiful and spectacular. It is used as the basic measure of component size for a long time after it is formed.
3、装饰作用
3. Decorative function
它构造精巧,造形美观,如盆景,似花篮,又是很好的装饰性构件。后来的斗拱逐渐变为装饰(后来采用砖墙,出檐变近许多,作用减少),也是区别建筑等级的标志。越高贵的建筑斗拱越复杂、繁华。
It has exquisite structure and beautiful shape, such as bonsai and flower basket. It is also a good decorative component. Later, the bucket arch gradually became decoration (later, the brick wall was adopted, the eaves became closer and the function was reduced), which was also a sign to distinguish the architectural grade. The more noble the architecture, the more complex and prosperous the bucket arch.
4、抗震作用
4. Seismic action
榫卯结合是抗震的关键。这种结构和现代梁柱框架结构极为类似。构架的节点不是刚接,这就了建筑物的刚度协调。
The combination of tenon and mortise is the key to earthquake resistance. This structure is very similar to modern beam column frame structure. The joints of the frame are not rigid, which leads to the stiffness coordination of the building.