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斗拱的发展三个阶段介绍

来源:http://www.luchuangjiancai.com/ 时间:2021-06-22 浏览量:

斗拱位于屋盖与柱之间,起着将屋檐重量转移到柱上的作用。重要的或不朽的建筑物都有斗拱。
The bucket arch is located between the roof and the column, which transfers the weight of the eaves to the column. Important or immortal buildings have brackets.
从建筑各部分的关系来看,斗拱有三个不同的位置:一个在柱子上,一个在柱子之间的过梁上,第三个在屋角。根据清代工程实践规程,这三种植物分别称为柱头科、假肢科和角质科。关于桶形拱的起源,有三种观点:一种是井身结构相交处的变化形成的;另一种是由柱的悬臂梁变化形成的;另一种是由屋檐柱演变为支撑悬臂梁的斜撑,再演变为桶形拱

From the relationship between the various parts of the building, the bucket arch has three different positions: one on the column, one on the lintel between the columns, and the third on the corner. According to the engineering practice rules of Qing Dynasty, these three plants are called stigmaceae, prosthetic and horny respectively. There are three views on the origin of bucket arch: one is formed by the change of intersection of wellbore structure; The other is formed by the change of the cantilever beam of the column; The other is the evolution from the eaves column to the diagonal brace supporting the cantilever beam, and then to the bucket arch

斗拱的发展可分为三个阶段--
The development of Dougong can be divided into three stages--
一阶段为西周至南北朝。在汉代,我们可以在明陶建筑、画像砖等文物中看到斗宫的出现。在这一时期,拱门之间没有相互连接。
The first stage is from the Western Zhou Dynasty to the northern and Southern Dynasties. In the Han Dynasty, we can see the appearance of Dougong in Ming Dynasty pottery buildings, brick portraits and other cultural relics. During this period, there was no interconnection between the arches.
二阶段为唐代至元代。此时,斗拱已不再是一个孤立的支撑或檐口构件,而是水平框架不可分割的一部分。
The second stage is from Tang Dynasty to Yuan Dynasty. At this time, the bucket arch is no longer an isolated support or cornice component, but an integral part of the horizontal frame.
三阶段为明清时期。在这一时期,斗拱规模不断缩小,斗拱间距不断增 大。
The three stages are Ming and Qing Dynasties. During this period, the scale of the bucket arches was shrinking and the distance between them was increasing.
从两千多年前战国时期采桑打猎壶上的建筑图案,以及汉代保存下来的墓葬和壁画,我们可以看到早期的斗公形象。中国古典建筑具装饰性的特点往往被皇帝抓住。唐朝发展后,斗宫被禁止为民所用。
We can see the early image of Dougong from the architectural patterns on the mulberry hunting pot in the Warring States period more than 2000 years ago, as well as the tombs and murals preserved in the Han Dynasty. Chinese classical architecture with decorative characteristics is often seized by the emperor. After the development of Tang Dynasty, Dougong was forbidden to be used by the people.
斗拱是汉代建筑的一个独特组成部分,由斗、盛、贡、巧、昂四个方格组成。桶拱的中间部分仍然叫杂耍头。上面刻着一个蓝色的水龙头。拱座两侧雕有半固态的火珠,象征好运。一般来说,只有具有重要意义或纪念性质的建筑物才能与斗宫一起放置。
Dougong is a unique part of architecture in Han Dynasty, which is composed of four squares: Dou, Sheng, Gong, Qiao and ang. The middle part of the bucket arch is still called the juggler head. It"s carved with a blue tap. On both sides of the arch are carved semi-solid fire beads, symbolizing good luck. Generally speaking, only buildings of great significance or commemorative nature can be placed together with Dougong.