Types and significance of kissing animals in ancient buildings
The kissing beast on the roof of the temple is a decorative building component. In feudal society, the shape and installation position of the component are covered with superstition. According to the records of the Tang society, there are things like fish Qiuwei on the Bailiang hall in the Han Dynasty, which is used to avoid fire. In the records after the Jin Dynasty, the word "Yingwei" appeared. After the middle Tang Dynasty, the word "tail" became the word "kiss", so it is also called "yingzi", On the main ridge and vertical ridge on the roof of the official building, there are kissing animals with different shapes and names. The size and number of their shapes represent the level of the temple.
1. Big kiss (straight ridge kiss)
The big kiss, that is, the kissing beast at both ends of the main ridge on the top of the temple, is generally in the shape of a faucet, with a big mouth holding the ridge end, so it is also called the swallowing ridge beast
The main ridge of the roof is generated by the intersection of the two slope tops. The intersection will not be very tight. In order to make the tiles on the two sides of the roof intersect properly and prevent water leakage, bricks and tiles need to be added to seal the position of the ridge. As a result, it is higher than the roof and hinders the view. Therefore, the ancients thought of making various decorations on these higher ridges, such as animals, plants and later formed kissing, It is beautiful and practical. This kiss is also very particular. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, it was promoted to one of the nine sons of the dragon. It has a good character and looks good. It makes him climb up the roof and bite the ridge. The craftsman nailed him firmly to the roof with a sword. Once it thunders and catches fire, it can spray water. At present, the big ridge swallowing beast in China has a big kiss from the Taihe hall on the top of the Taihe Hall of the Forbidden City, It is composed of 13 pieces of glass, with a total height of 34 meters and a weight of 43 tons. It is a typical work of the positive ridge kiss of the palace in the Ming and Qing Dynasties
2. Vertical ridge kiss
In addition to the main ridge, there are also vertical ridges on the top of the temple. There are many names of kissing animals on the vertical ridge. In addition to the vertical ridge kiss, it is also called roof ridge animals, eaves corner animals, immortal animals, etc. the one in front of the eaves corner is called riding impatiens. Its function is to fix a tile at the lower end of the vertical ridge. Before the shape of immortal riding chicken is formed, it is fixed with a big long nail.
From the Impatiens riding people to the back and top, there are several small beasts, all called vertical ridge beasts. The number varies with the level of the temple. There are many high-level temples, such as Taihe hall. The number of vertical ridge beasts is determined by the grade of 11 houses. The number of vertical ridge beasts decreases with the degradation of the temple, such as 9 in Qianqing palace and 7 in Kunning palace, Most of the top of the six palaces in the East and West are five, and each ridged beast has its own name and meaning