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​古建筑中吻兽种类以及意义

来源:http://www.luchuangjiancai.com/ 时间:2021-12-29 浏览量:

古建筑中吻兽种类以及意义
Types and significance of kissing animals in ancient buildings
殿宇屋顶的吻兽,是一种装饰性建筑构件,在封建社会中,构件的造型与安装位置,都被蒙上迷信色彩唐会要中记载,汉代的柏梁殿上已有鱼虬尾似鸱一类的东西,其作用有避火之意晋代之后的记载中,出现鸱尾一词中唐之后,尾字变成吻字,故又称为鸱吻,官式建筑殿宇屋顶上的正脊和垂脊上,各有不同形状和名称的吻兽,以其形状之大小和数目之多少,代表殿宇等级之高低。

The kissing beast on the roof of the temple is a decorative building component. In feudal society, the shape and installation position of the component are covered with superstition. According to the records of the Tang society, there are things like fish Qiuwei on the Bailiang hall in the Han Dynasty, which is used to avoid fire. In the records after the Jin Dynasty, the word "Yingwei" appeared. After the middle Tang Dynasty, the word "tail" became the word "kiss", so it is also called "yingzi", On the main ridge and vertical ridge on the roof of the official building, there are kissing animals with different shapes and names. The size and number of their shapes represent the level of the temple.

1.大吻(正脊吻)
1. Big kiss (straight ridge kiss)
大吻,即殿宇顶上正脊两端的吻兽,一般是龙头形,张大口衔住脊端,故又称吞脊兽
The big kiss, that is, the kissing beast at both ends of the main ridge on the top of the temple, is generally in the shape of a faucet, with a big mouth holding the ridge end, so it is also called the swallowing ridge beast
屋顶正脊,两个坡顶相交而产生正脊,相交处必然不会十分严密,为了使屋顶两个面的瓦件相交妥贴,不致漏水,在脊的位置上就需要加砖瓦封口,结果是高出屋面,有碍观瞻于是古人想到在这些高出的脊上做出各种装饰,如动物植物,以及后来形成的鸱吻,美观又实用这个鸱吻也是很有讲究的,明清时它荣升为龙之九子之一,性格好望好吞好张望使他往屋顶上爬,好吞噬使他张口咬着屋脊,工匠一剑就把他牢牢钉在屋顶,一旦打雷着火,可喷水,目前我国大的吞脊兽,在故宫太和殿的殿顶上太和殿的大吻,由13块琉璃件构成,总高34米,重43吨,是我国明清时代宫殿正脊吻的典型作品
The main ridge of the roof is generated by the intersection of the two slope tops. The intersection will not be very tight. In order to make the tiles on the two sides of the roof intersect properly and prevent water leakage, bricks and tiles need to be added to seal the position of the ridge. As a result, it is higher than the roof and hinders the view. Therefore, the ancients thought of making various decorations on these higher ridges, such as animals, plants and later formed kissing, It is beautiful and practical. This kiss is also very particular. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, it was promoted to one of the nine sons of the dragon. It has a good character and looks good. It makes him climb up the roof and bite the ridge. The craftsman nailed him firmly to the roof with a sword. Once it thunders and catches fire, it can spray water. At present, the big ridge swallowing beast in China has a big kiss from the Taihe hall on the top of the Taihe Hall of the Forbidden City, It is composed of 13 pieces of glass, with a total height of 34 meters and a weight of 43 tons. It is a typical work of the positive ridge kiss of the palace in the Ming and Qing Dynasties
2.垂脊吻
2. Vertical ridge kiss
殿宇顶上除正脊外,还有垂脊垂脊上的吻兽名称较多,除叫垂脊吻外,还叫屋脊走兽,檐角走兽,仙人走兽等檐角前面的一个叫骑凤仙人,它的作用是固定垂脊下端一块瓦件,在未形成仙人骑鸡这一造型之前,是用一个大长钉来固定的。
In addition to the main ridge, there are also vertical ridges on the top of the temple. There are many names of kissing animals on the vertical ridge. In addition to the vertical ridge kiss, it is also called roof ridge animals, eaves corner animals, immortal animals, etc. the one in front of the eaves corner is called riding impatiens. Its function is to fix a tile at the lower end of the vertical ridge. Before the shape of immortal riding chicken is formed, it is fixed with a big long nail.
从骑凤仙人向后上方排列着若干小兽,均称垂脊兽,随着殿宇等级的不同而数目不一高等级的殿宇,如太和殿,垂脊兽的数目多,有11个房屋品级的不同决定了垂脊兽的数量,殿宇降级,垂脊兽的数目也随之减少如乾清宫9个,坤宁宫7个,东西六宫的殿顶上大部是5个每个垂脊兽都有自己的名称和含意
From the Impatiens riding people to the back and top, there are several small beasts, all called vertical ridge beasts. The number varies with the level of the temple. There are many high-level temples, such as Taihe hall. The number of vertical ridge beasts is determined by the grade of 11 houses. The number of vertical ridge beasts decreases with the degradation of the temple, such as 9 in Qianqing palace and 7 in Kunning palace, Most of the top of the six palaces in the East and West are five, and each ridged beast has its own name and meaning