The kissing beast on the roof of the temple is a decorative building component. In feudal society, the shape and installation position of the component are covered with superstition. According to Tang Huiyao, the Bailiang hall in the Han Dynasty had such things as "fish with Qiuwei like a Owl", which meant to "avoid fire". In the records after the Jin Dynasty, the word "bushtail" appeared.
After the Mid Tang Dynasty, the word "tail" became the word "kiss", so it was also called "kiss". On the main ridge and vertical ridge on the roof of the official building, there were kissing animals with different shapes and names. The size and number of their shapes represented the level of the temple.
1. Big kiss (straight ridge kiss)
Big kiss, that is, the kissing beast at both ends of the main ridge on the top of the temple, is generally in the shape of a faucet, with a big mouth holding the ridge end, so it is also called the swallowing beast.
The main ridge of the roof is generated by the intersection of the two slope tops. The intersection will not be very tight. In order to make the tiles on the two sides of the roof intersect properly and prevent water leakage, bricks and tiles need to be added at the position of the ridge. As a result, it is higher than the roof and hinders the view. So the ancients thought of making various decorations on these high ridges, such as animals, plants, and later formed kissing, which was beautiful and practical. This kiss is also very particular. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, it was promoted to one of the nine sons of the dragon, with a character of "good hope and good swallowing". Good looking makes him climb to the roof, good swallowing makes him open his mouth and bite the ridge of the roof. The craftsman nailed him firmly to the roof with a sword. Once there is thunder and fire, water can be sprayed.
At present, China"s largest ridge swallowing beast is on the top of the Taihe Hall of the Forbidden City. The big kiss in Taihe hall, composed of 13 pieces of glass, is 34 meters high and weighs 43 tons. It is a typical work of the main ridge kiss in the palace in the Ming and Qing Dynasties.
2. Vertical ridge kiss
In addition to the main ridge, there are vertical ridges on the top of the temple. There are many names of kissing animals on the vertical ridge. In addition to being called vertical ridge kissing, they are also called roof ridge animals, eaves angle animals, immortal animals, etc. The one in front of the eaves corner is called "Impatiens riding man", also known as "immortal riding chicken". Its function is to fix a tile at the lower end of the vertical ridge. Before the shape of "immortal riding chicken" was formed, it was fixed with a long nail. It is said that the king of the state of Qi failed in a battle and came to the Bank of a big river. There was no way to go. The pursuers behind him were about to arrive. In danger, suddenly, a big bird flew in front of him. He hurried to ride on the big bird and cross the river. The ancients put it on the ridge of the building, which also means flying on a Phoenix.
From the "immortal riding a chicken" to the top, there are a number of small animals, all called vertical ridge animals, which vary with the level of the temple. High level temples, such as the hall of Supreme Harmony, have a large number of ridged beasts, including 11. The different house grades determine the number of vertical ridged beasts. The number of vertical ridged beasts decreases with the degradation of the temple. For example, there are 9 Qianqing palaces, 7 Kunning palaces, and most of the top of the six East and West palaces are 5. Each Drake has its own name and meaning.
The requirements of garden architecture on specifications are not as strict as those of the imperial palace. The high-grade roof of the summer palace is the cloud expelling hall, which is not only a glass roof, but also a large hall with a large number of vertical ridge animals in the whole park, but there are only seven vertical ridge animals, namely dragon, Phoenix, lion, seahorse, Tianma, fish and lion dragon; Some buildings in the four continents have veranda roofs, but there are only five ridge animals, namely dragon, Phoenix, lion, seahorse and Tianma; Although there are seven small animals on the ridge of the grand theater building in Dehe garden, there is no immortal to lead the way.
The order of the ridged animals on the tile roof in the summer palace is different from that on the glazed tile roof. One is a lion, also known as a lion with a head, and the following are dragons, phoenixes, seahorses, heavenly horses, etc; There are also some buildings with vertical ridges and animals in a disorderly order. It can be seen that when the summer palace was rebuilt in the late Qing Dynasty, the human, material and financial resources of the imperial palace were lacking, and the rules were not as strict as those in the previous dynasty, or the interior government was suspected of cutting corners.
The order of the Drake from front to back and up is:
① Dragon: a magical animal in ancient legends. It has scales, whiskers and claws. It can make clouds and rain. It is regarded as the symbol of the emperor in feudal society.
② Phoenix: the bird king in ancient legends. The male is called Phoenix and the female is called Phoenix. It is commonly known as Phoenix. It is the symbol of giri in the feudal era and also the nickname of the queen.
③ Lion: ancient people thought it was the king of beasts and a symbol of power.
④ Tianma: it means God horse. In the Han Dynasty, it was a general term for good horses from the western regions.
⑤ Seahorse: also called luolongzi, it is an animal of sea dragon family, which can be used in traditional Chinese medicine. Pegasus and seahorse symbolize the emperor's Weide, who can reach the sky and the sea.
⑥ Lion dragon: the beast that can eat tigers and leopards in ancient legends is also a powerful beast.
⑦ Fish: strange animals in the sea can also make clouds and rain.
*: the right and wrong Unicorn beast can be distinguished from legend. It is the symbol of the emperor's "fairness and justice".
⑨ Bullfighting: also known as pole bull, it is a kind of dragon in ancient legends, namely Qiu and Xiang. Qiu has a single horn, but he has no horn.
⑩ What to do: a figure with a winged monkey face. It's a tailed beast. It is named Xingshi because it ranks ten..
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